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  • Spatial and seasonal variability of carbonaceous aerosol across Italy
  • Diario de la marina ( November 19, 1955 )
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Observers in Maine noted that this species arrived roughly a week earlier than usual in early Feb. The latter species is consid- erably rarer in winter than the former species.

The site of the study was the area of Ferrara Po Valley, Northern Italywhich is characterized by frequent episodes of very stable atmospheric conditions in winter. Chemical analyses carried out during the study allowed the determination of the main components of atmospheric PM macro-elements, ions, dell nv18 ulga carbon, organic matter and a satisfactory mass closure was obtained. Accordingly, chemical components could be grouped into the main macro-sources of PM: soil, sea spray, inorganic compounds from secondary reactions, vehicular emission, organics from domestic heating, organics from secondary formation, and other sources. The more significant seasonal variations were observed for secondary inorganic species in the fine fraction of PM; these species were very sensitive to air mass age and thus to the frequency of stable atmospheric conditions.

The intensity of natural sources was fairly constant during the year; increases in natural aerosols were linked to medium and long-range transport episodes. The ratio of winter to summer concentrations was roughly 2 for combustion product, close to 3 for secondary inorganic species, and between 2 and 3 for organics. The winter increase of organics was due to poorer atmospheric dispersion and to the addition of the emission from domestic heating.

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A similar winter to summer ratio around 3 was observed for the fine fraction of PM. Variability of carbonaceous aerosols in remote, rural, urban and industrial environments in Spain: Implications for air dell nv18 ulga policy. Mar Viana. We interpret here the variability of levels of carbonaceous aerosols based on a yr database from 78 monitoring stations across Spain especially compiled for this article.

Data did not evidence any spatial trends of carbonaceous aerosols across the country. Thus, urban and dell nv18 ulga specific industrial pollution was found to markedly increase levels of carbonaceous aerosols in Spain, with much lower impact of biomass burning.

A clear seasonal variability in OC and EC concentrations was detected. Both OC and EC concentrations were higher during winter at the traffic and urban sites, but OC increased during dell nv18 ulga warmer months at the rural sites. Hourly equivalent black carbon EBC concentrations at urban sites accurately depict road traffic contributions, varying with distance to road, traffic volume and density, mixing layer height and wind speed. Weekday urban rush-hour EBC peaks are mimicked by concentrations of primary gaseous emissions from road traffic, whereas a single midday peak is characteristic of remote and rural sites. Decreasing annual trends for carbonaceous aerosols were observed between and at a large number of stations, probably reflecting the impact of the EURO4 and EURO5 standards in reducing the diesel PM emissions.

Mar J Appl Meteorol. This paper describes a simple algorithm for the calculation of the time-dependent mixing height h t in coastal sites using wind, temperature, momentum flux, and heat flux time series as input data. A stationary expression for the coastal internal boundary layer height is used to avoid the solution of a partial differential equation for the evolution of h as a function of time and fetch, thus reducing the problem to a direct integration in time. The algorithm has been implemented in a previously developed scheme that allows a continuous calculation over the diurnal cycle.

The calculated evolution of h t is compared with sodar estimates in a coastal site over a few days.


Characterization of water-soluble organic matter isolated from atmospheric fine aerosol. The total carbon concentration ranged from 5 to 13 mug m-3 and from 3 to 6 mug m-3 in the first three months and the rest dell nv18 ulga the sampling period, respectively.

This fraction was experimentally dell nv18 ulga by an organic matter to organic carbon mass ratio of 1. On the basis of theoretical considerations, the organic matter to organic carbon mass ratio was estimated to be 2. In order to extend the scope of dell nv18 ulga estimation to the total organic carbon, which is usually required in mass closure calculations, the aqueous extraction was followed by sequential extraction with acetone and 0. As a result, a total organic matter to total organic carbon mass ratio of 1.

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Eileen Birch. Diesel exhaust has been classified a probable human carcinogen, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH has recommended that employers reduce dell nv18 ulga exposures.

Diario de la marina ( November 19, 1955 )

Because diesel exhaust is a chemically complex mixture containing thousands of compounds, some measure of exposure must be selected. Previously used methods involving gravimetry or analysis of the soluble organic fraction of diesel soot lack adequate sensitivity and selectivity for low-level determination of particulate diesel exhaust; a new analytical approach was therefore needed. In this paper, results of investigation of a thermal-optical technique for analysis of the carbonaceous fraction of particulate diesel exhaust are reported. The thermal-optical method was selected because the instrument has desirable design features not present in other carbon analyzers. Although various carbon types are determined, elemental carbon is the superior marker of diesel particulate matter because elemental carbon constitutes a large fraction of the particulate mass, it can be quantified at low levels, and its only significant source in most workplaces is the diesel engine.

Exposure-related issues and results of investigation of various sampling methods for particulate diesel exhaust also are discussed. The views expressed in this paper dell nv18 ulga those of the authors, and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. A statistical investigation about sources of PM in South Italy. Martino Amodio E. Chemical composition data ionic fraction, carbonaceous compounds and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons for PM2. In addition, an industrial site was considered. DELL NV18 ULGA DRIVER - Scarpula, Alan Schreck n.

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